Among the numerous things taken to the Americas amid the transoceanic slave exchange is religion. The oppressed Africans in an offer to clutch their way of life and customs would embrace their African religions to their living conditions at the time. This incorporated the reception of a few parts of different religions to make a one of a kind method for love.
One of this is Umbanda, an Afro-Brazilian religion that has its underlying foundations in Nigeria. As of now, it joins the parts of this African custom with Catholicism, mysticism and other American religious convictions.
Albeit many trust that the Umbanda originated from Africa in the nineteenth century, some trust that it was set up in Rio De Janeiro by the twentieth century. Regardless of the establishment, the religion has over the years formed various branches including, Umbanda d’Angola, Umbanda Jejê, Umbanda Ketu, and Umbanda Esotéric. Even along these lines, the basic parts of the religion still continue as before.
Umbanda admirers have confidence in one god, Olorun, (or Zambi in Umbada d’Angola) and have various divinities known as orixas (or orishas). The fundamental orixas are like those in the Yoruba religion and incorporate Oxala (spoke to as Jesus), Yemoja (Our Lady of Navigators), Ibeji, Ogum and Oxumare, among others.
The religion also comes with a number of spirits, who guide the worshippers in different aspects of life. One of the spirits is the Preto Velho (Old Black Man) and Preta Velha (Old Black Woman), which is representative of the old slaves who died enslaved. They are usually considered good spirits that showed compassion and forgiveness and are some of the most-loved spirits by the worshippers.
The Baianos are the spirits that represent the Umbanda worshippers who had died. Most of them were living in the Bahia region of Brazil.
Besides the good spirits, the Umbanda also believe in bad and evil spirits although most of them avoid these dark spirits at all costs. These dark spirits are revered in the Quimbanda, another Afro-Brazilian religion usually considered the opposite of the Umbanda.
In terms of practice, this religion has a number of rituals usually conducted by priests and priestesses. Like the Candomble religion, Umbada also has altars called Terreiro (backyard) and tend (tent). Almost all forms of Umbanda have rituals that involve chanting, dancing, drumming and commune with the spirit with the help of a psychic.
These communing sessions are considered vital to the daily existence of the Umbanda worshippers, who participate in the worship rites to ensure that they appease the Orixas and the spirits.
From the late 19th century to mid 2oth century, the religion faced repression in the country, with many worshippers arrested and persecuted. A law in 1890 was passed to ban spiritism, magic and its sorcery, in the 1950s the worshippers had to fight against the Catholic Church and 20 years later they had an enemy in the Pentecostal churches.
Reports indicate that Umbada, like many other Afro-Brazillian religions, is still thriving today, with about 450,000 worshippers, but the number is believed to be higher as many Umbandists, as they are known, do not proclaim their religion in public.
Nevertheless, the religion spread to other parts of the continent including Argentina and Uruguay.