Alive, he was decked out all nicknames, crazier than the others: “Guide of the Revolution”, “King of traditional kings of Africa”, “Brother Guide” … That was before the Libyan rebels run Muammar Gaddafi on 20 October 2011, the last act of the Libyan civil war, and stripped of the status of demigod he had arrogated to himself.
Five years after his death, Libya is still in chaos, divided between militias of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, although the Islamic state, once threatening, lost control of Sirte and the coastal strip adjacent to the city . In Tripoli, the Libyan capital, the situation is more confused since a former head of government of the Libyan Western Khalifa Ghweil, announced on 14 October , taking over his duties and took control of part of buildings officials. He called all his former ministers to reoccupy their positions and to consider “as suspended from office” officials appointed by the national unity government of Fayez el-Sarraj.
Away from the hope of a better future which had flourished during the Arab Spring, the Libyans have only known the smell of powder and conflict since the fall of the “Guide”. Back in pictures on these accursed years that bear the seal of Gaddafi.
2011. pathetic death of the tyrant
Philippe DESMAZES / AFP
October 20, 2011, Gaddafi is trying to escape from Sirte where he is cornered with his followers by Libyan rebels supported by the international coalition. The 4×4 convoy dictator was bombed by NATO planes. He fled with his bodyguards in a villa abandoned at the roadside, before finally being besieged and killed by rebels who stormed the house. The picture of a bloody Gaddafi, half dead, toured the world.
The water pipe in which Gaddafi was discovered by Libyan rebels, on 20 October 2011. PHILIPPE DESMAZES / AFP
A new country
October 23, 2011 in Benghazi, President of the National Transitional Council (NTC) Mustafa Abdel Jalil proclaimed the “liberation” of Libya. After 42-year reign of Muammar Gaddafi and eight months of civil war, Libya is finally free, but mourning. The conflict has claimed tens of thousands dead.
A tag that mocks Gaddafi in Tripoli after the liberation of the city in October 2011. TURKIA MAHMUD / AFP
2012 First election and division
In July 2012 Libya elects first democratically and through elections are government. The new president of the country is Youssef Mohammed el-Megaryef, a moderate Islamist. But in reality, the civil war has destroyed all central state. Political power is not in control of tribal or private militia from the revolution. Violence between rival groups are multiplying, particularly in Benghazi, where a series of attacks took place in October 2013 .
A Libyan walks past posters of campaigns of candidates in the legislative elections in July 2012, in Tripoli. GIANLUIGI GUERCIA / AFP
Funeral of a militia of Misrata killed by a rival gang, 25 September 2012. STRINGER / AFP
2014. Second Civil War
Three years after the fall of Tripoli, Libya is again in the grip of civil war. In the summer of 2014, two rival governments face, that of Tripoli in the west and the east of Tobruk. Each camp has its own militia. Jihadists affiliated to the Islamic state also within the conflict by seizing numerous territories around the town of Dera and Sirte.
The cycle of violence will continue until 2016, when a national coalition appears to drive the Islamic State of Sirte region. But no concrete and solid political solution has yet emerged in a fragmented country since the fall of Muammar Gaddafi, whose ghost still hovers over the Libyans.
A copy of the Green Paper Gaddafi in flames, March 2, 2011. Roberto SCHMIDT / AFP
Source: Slate Africa