He also suggested that poor English skills can leave people “more susceptible” to the messages of groups like Islamic State (IS).
Cameron’s comments came as his centre-right Conservatives launched a £20 million ($28.5 million, 26 million euro) language fund for women in isolated communities as part of a drive to build community integration.
Immigration rules already force spouses to speak English before they come to Britain to live with their partners.
But Cameron said they would also face further tests after two and a half years in the country to make sure their language skills were improving.
“You can’t guarantee you will be able to stay if you are not improving your language,” he told BBC radio. “People coming to our country, they have responsibilities too.”
Cameron’s government estimates that around 190,000 Muslim women in England — about 22 percent — speak little or no English.
There are estimated to be around 2.7 million Muslims in England out of a total population of some 53 million.
Cameron said that a lack of language skills could make Muslims in Britain more vulnerable to the message of extremist groups.