The Blues idol won the Champions League and four Premier League titles during his nine seasons at Stamford Bridge.
Chelsea officials are understood to have offered the former striker a senior management role following Maurizio Sarri’s departure during the summer.
But Drogba said he passed up the opportunity as he instead wants to have a major influence on Ivorian football.
The striker’s fellow club legend Frank Lampard was appointed as Blues boss in July.
Drogba won 105 caps for the Elephants. He retired from playing last year following a spell with US club Phoenix Rising.
The 41-year-old revealed his plans at a business forum in his home city Abidjan on Thursday.
He said: “Chelsea offered me the chance to return to them as a coach.
“But being a coach does not interest me. I am a leader, and my vision is bigger than just the simple role of being a coach.
“A coach has an impact on a club – but I want to have an impact on an entire nation.
“I could have stayed at Chelsea, but I think the real challenge is here.
“I want us to re-think football, with a nationwide vision, so we can develop the game here.
“The Ivory Coast has a glorious footballing past.
“The funds are in place, together with talent and potential, but they are under-exploited.
“There are some very competent people in the Ivory Coast who can work with me on this project.”
Drogba announced last month that he plans to stand for election as president of the Ivorian FA, FIF.