Honey is essentially a sugar. Sugars contain very little water in its natural state.
Honey is also naturally acidic and has a pH value between 3 and 4.5. Very few bacteria and other microorganisms can survive in this environment.
Another important factor is the bees.
Nectar is the first material collected by the bees to create honey and it is naturally very rich in water – between 60 and 80 %. However, during the process of making honey, bees have a very important role in removing the water by waving their wings and literally make the nectar dry.
Bee’s stomachs possess a special enzyme and when they dispose the nectar from their mouths to create honey, these enzymes are mixed with nectar, breaking it in two by-products: gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide.
Hydrogen peroxide is the other important substance to deal with all the negative things that could occur in honey.
Therefore, the honey was used for centuries as a remedy – its density rejects any form of growth and contains hydrogen peroxide which makes perfect barrier to prevent infections.