Seven medical schools were established between 1868 and 1904 to educate black students. In 1895, there were 385 black doctors, only 7 percent from white medical schools. In 1905, there were 1,465 black doctors, and only 14.5 percent where from white medical schools. Almost 2,400 physicians were graduated from Howard and Meharry medical schools from 1890 to the end of WWI.
1. Howard University Medical School, est. 1868
Howard University Medical School was established for the purpose of educating African American doctors. Howard opened in 1868 to both Black and White students, including women. Its first faculty consisted of four Whites and one African American, Dr. Alexander T. Augusta.
2. Meharry Medical College, est. 1876
Meharry Medical College opened in 1876 in Nashville, Tennessee with less than a 12 students. The students were mostly from the south. It was originally part of Central Tennessee College. From 1877 to 1890, Meharry graduated 102 students.
3. Leonard Medical School (Shaw University), 1882-1914
Leonard Medical School of Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina was established in 1882 in order to supplement the work of Howard and Meharry. Of the half-dozen medical schools established between 1882 and 1888, Leonard was the most successful.
4. Knoxville College Medical Department, 1895-1900
(Became Knoxville Medical College in 1900 and closed in 1910)
Dr. John S. McCulloch became the first president of the Knoxville College in 1877. In order to have a supply of college students, the school organized an elementary department and a high-school department to feed the college department. It graduated its first two college students in 1883.
In 1895, Knoxville College organized a medical department to train physicians. Unfortunately, it never was properly staffed or financed to carry on the work of an accredited medical school. It graduated only two students in 1900 and closed later that year.