Greta Thunberg was put forward by three Norwegian politicians who say she has started “a very important peace contribution”.
As part of her Youth Strike 4 Climate campaign, the 16-year-old has called on students to skip school to join protests urging countries to act faster on climate change.
The movement has spread beyond Sweden to other European countries, including Britain.
Norwegian politician Freddy Andre Oevstegaardtold said: “Climate threats are perhaps one of the most important contributions to war and conflict.”
Any national politician can nominate somebody for the Nobel Peace Prize.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee does not publicly comment on nominations, which for 2019 had to be submitted by 1 February.
Greta tweeted: “Honoured and very grateful for this nomination.”
She said another school strike is set to take place on Friday in 105 countries.
The activist first staged a strike in front of the Swedish parliament in August last year.
Since then she has been missing lessons most Fridays to stage her protests.
She gained international attention after speaking at the UN climate talks in Poland in December and at the World Economic Forum in Davos in January, where she said: “On climate change we have to acknowledge that we have failed.”