“This evening I received confirmation that the test is negative,” Sean Conley said in a statement on Saturday.
Mr Trump underwent a test days after hosting a meeting at his Florida resort with a Brazilian delegation, some of whom have tested positive.
Fabio Wajngarten, an aide to the Brazilian president, was among those later confirmed to have the disease.
“One week after having dinner with the Brazilian delegation in Mar-a-Lago, the president remains symptom-free,” Mr Conley said.
Mr Trump, aged 73, did not self-isolate after that meeting, saying he had no symptoms.
But after a barrage of further questions during a new conference at the White House, he said he would get tested.
He was checked on Friday, the White House physician said.
“I have been in daily contact with the CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] and White House Coronavirus Task Force, and we are encouraging the implementation of all their best practices for exposure reduction and transmission mitigation,” Mr Conley’s statement said
Official US advice is that people who have contact with a confirmed case should stay at home for 14 days.
The US has more than 2,700 confirmed cases, with 54 deaths.
On Friday, President Trump declared a national state of emergency to release $50bn (£40bn) to fight the spread of the virus.
Mr Wajngarten, a press secretary for Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro, posted a photograph of himself standing close to Mr Trump.
The Brazilian official tested positive several days after that visit.
Other Brazilians in Mr Bolsonaro’s entourage at Mar-a-Lago have since tested positive including lawyer Karina Kufa, Senator Nelsinho Trad and Brazil’s ambassador to the US, Nestor Forster.
Miami Mayor Francis Suarez – who also met Mr Wajngarten during his US trip – announced on Friday that he had been infected.
The Brazilian delegation also met Mr Trump’s daughter Ivanka Trump, his son-in-law Jared Kushner and his personal lawyer Rudy Giuliani.
Meanwhile, Republican Senator Lindsey Graham, also present at Mar-a-Lago, has announced that he will self-quarantine “in an abundance of caution”.