Powell v. Alabama (1932)
Supreme court overturned the convictions of the “Scottsboro Boys” and guaranteed counsel in state and federal courts.
Loving v. Virginia (1967)
The prohibition on interracial marriage was deemed unconstitutional. The states that still banned interracial marriage at the time were forced to revise their laws.
Civil Rights Cases (1883)
A number of cases were addressed under this Supreme court decision. Courts decided that the Civil Rights Act of 1875–the last federal civil rights legislation until the Civil Rights Act of 1957–was unconstitutional. Allowed private sector segregation.
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
The decision upheld affirmative action’s constitutionality in education, as long it employed a “highly individualized, holistic review of each applicant’s file” and did not consider race as a factor in a “mechanical way.”