Past United Nations Missions in Africa

Former UN Missions in Africa by Start Date
Acronym Start Date End Date Name Context Outcome





July ’60



June ’64



UN Operations in the Congo



Independence from Belgium

Katanga’s attempted secession


Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba was assassinated, at which point the mission was expanded.

The Congo retained the secessionist province of Katanga.

Mission followed by civilian aid.






Jan. ’89



May ’91



UN Angola Verification Mission



Angola’s lengthy civil war


Cuban troops were withdrawn one month ahead of schedule, having completed their mission.

Mission followed by: UNAVEM II & UNAVEM III






April ’90



March ’90



UN Transition Assistance Group



Angolan Civil War and Namibia’s transition to independence from South Africa


South African troops departed

Elections were held and a new constitution approved.

Namibia joined the UN






May ’91



Feb. ’95



UN Angola Verification Mission II



Angolan Civil War


Elections were held in 1991, but the results were rejected and violence escalated.

Mission transitioned to: UNAVEM III






April ’92



March ’93



UN Operation in Somalia I



Somali Civil War


The violence in Somalia continued to escalate, making it difficult for UNOSOM I to deliver relief aid.

The United States created a second operation, the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), to help UNOSOM I protect and distribute humanitarian aid.

In 1993, the UN created  UNOSOM II to replace UNOSOM I and UNITAF.






Dec. ’92



Dec. ’94



UN Operations in Mozambique



Conclusion of the Civil War in Mozambique


The ceasefire was successful. Mozambique’s then government and the major rivals (RENAMO) demobilized troops, displaced persons were resettled, and elections were held.







March ’93



March ’95



UN Operation in Somalia II



Somali Civil War


After the Battle of Mogadishu in Oct. ’93, the United States and several Western countries withdrew their troops from UNOSOM II.

The UN voted to withdrawn UN troops from Somalia having failed to establish a ceasefire or disarmament.







June ’93



Sept. ’94



UN Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda



Fighting between the Rwandan Patriotic Front (based in Uganda) and the Rwandan Government


The Observer Mission encountered many difficulties in monitoring the border, due to the terrain and the competing Rwandan and Ugandan factions.

After the Rwandan genocide, the mission’s mandate came to an end and it was not renewed. The mission was succeeded instead by UNAMIR, which had already begun its operations.






Sept. ’93



Sept. ’97



UN Observer Mission in Liberia



The First Liberian Civil War


UNOMI was to support ongoing efforts byECOWAS to bring an end to the war and ensure fair elections.

In 1997 elections were held and the mission terminated. The United Nations established a Peace-building Support Office in Liberia, but within a few years the Second Liberian Civil War had broken out.







Oct. ’93



March ’96




UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda



Rwandan Civil War between the RPF and Rwandan government


Due to both its restrictive rules of engagement and an unwillingness on the part of Western governments to risk their troops in Rwanda , the mission did little to stop the Rwandan genocide (Apr ’94-June ’94).

Afterwards, UNAMIR did  distribute and ensure humanitarian aid, but the failure to intervene in the genocide overshadows these significant but belated efforts.






May ’94



June ’94



UN Aouzou Strip Observation Group



Conclusion of the territorial dispute (1973-1994) between Chad and Libya over the Aouzou Strip.


Both governments signed a declaration agreeing that Libyan troops and administration had been withdrawn as previously agreed upon.







Feb. ’95



June 1997




UN Angola Verification Mission III



Angola’s Civil War


A government was formed by UNITA, but all parties continued to import arms. The situation also deteriorated with the involvement of Angola in the Congo Conflict.

Followed y MONUA.






June ’97



Feb. ’99



UN Observer Mission in Angola



Angola’s Civil War


Fighting in the civil war resumed and the UN withdrew its troops, while urging a continuation of humanitarian aid.







April ’98



Feb. ’00



UN Mission in the Central African Republic


Signing of the Bangui Accord between rebel forces and the Central African Republic’s government

Dialogue between parties continued and the peace was maintained.

Elections were held, after several previous attempts, in 1999, and the UN Mission withdrew.

MINURCA was followed by a UN Peace-building Support Office in the Central African Republic.






July ’98



Oct. ’99



UN Observer Mission in Sierra Leone



Sierra Leone’s Civil War (1991-2002)


Combatants signed the controversial Lome Peace Agreement.

The UN authorized a new mission, UNAMSIL, to replace UNOMSIL.







Oct. ’99



Dec. ’05



UN Mission in Sierra Leone



Sierra Leone’s Civil War (1991-2002)

 The mission was expanded three times in 2000 and 2001 as fighting continued.

The war ended in Dec. 2002, and UNAMSIL troops were slowly withdrawn.

Mission followed by the UN Integrated Office for Sierra Leone, which was created to consolidate the peace in Sierra Leone.






Nov. ’99



May 2010



UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo



Conclusion of the First Congo War and the Second Congo War


The Second Congo War began. It officially ended in 2002, but fighting by various rebel groups continued.

In 2010, MONUC was criticized for not intervening to stop mass rapes near one of its stations.

The Mission was renamed the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.






June 2000



July 2008



UN Observer Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea


A ceasefire signed by Ethiopia and Eritrea in their ongoing border dispute.


The mission was ended after Eritrea imposed numerous restrictions that prevented effective operation.







May 2003



April 2004



UN Operation in Côte d’Ivoire


Failed implementation of the Linas-Marcoussis Agreement, which was to end the ongoing conflict in the country.


MINUCI was replaced by the UN Operation in Côte d’Ivoire




Written by PH

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